02d :: Involuntary Architecture


What I would like to do in the following is to undertake a short experiment. The driving question is this: how can psychoanalytical theory or thinking inform the discourse in architecture? What delight might come out, emerge, out of this inter-course?

For this I would like to begin with the assumption that architecture has something to do with building, that is the situation and construction of structures in shared visible objective reality. These structures as a further condition have something to do with mankind, the standard relationship being that of one has the capacity to contain the other. Furthermore architecture, in contradistinction to mere building, invokes the capacity to carry a more or less explicit or coded message. Thus architecture is not only a medium in this sense but has too a relationship to that what we refer to as ‘meaning’. It stands for something, it represents a symbolic or symbolisable immaterial entity. Signalling, signifying, architectural products might well be also understood as symbol-forms. Psychoanalyst Christopher Bollas in his essay on the architectural unconscious slightly extrapolates this aspect when he claims that ‘building is a form of prayer’, but for now it might be better to stick to axioms that we can agree on. Taking the essay as a point of departure, what interests me here is to explore what in turn an unconscious architecture might be.

Learning from Las Vegas, the lessons obtained were that architecture is not only there where architects are at play but that proto-architectures might be identified much like found-objects by the virtue of things having something to do with what we are used to perceive as architecture. Thus the discourse of architecture is too on a mission to expand and to incorporate. The decorated shed, the duck, synthetic landscapes of arbitrarinesses, complexities and contradictions. I would like to introduce the term involuntary architectures to account for those constructed forms, which first are forms built not by architects, and second, potentially as a consequence of first, are forms that carry symbolic meaning which was not intended in the sense of consciously planned. Third, the symbolic meaning is at first hidden, needs to be deducted, yet once rendered visible it comes with astonishing intensity. A method for unveiling hidden symbolic meaning is available to us in psychoanalysis, which has been developed to make unconscious psychic content conscious and thus available for the purpose of reflective evaluation. [repetition compulsion][That what we do not remember we are bound to repeat.]

It was essentially in the course of meditating on three concepts which in different guises pop up both in architecture as in psychoanalysis that a specific cultural event popped up in my mind, to which I in my private universe too have developed a certain psychic involvement. First the concepts that were roaming around in my mind were a) containment, b) coupling, and c) playing. To give a brief description, containment in architecture might refer to the ability to shelter and thus to create an articulated inside-outside differentiation. Whereas in psychoanalysis containment is referred to a psychic function that is performed within the mother-baby dyad by the mother-figure having the role of an external and auxiliary regulator of emotional volatility of the baby. Coupling I would in architecture locate as construction technique in general, the need to assemble, that a built form usually is an organisation of multiple building blocks which need to be spatially related to each other in a way that a trustworthy amount of solidity and resilience is achieved. In psychoanalysis coupling has its precedence in sexuality where various forms of inter-course between two discrete individuals take place. Whereas containment has its precedence in pre-natal intrauterine life, coupling is that what follows after birth: the baby, coming to this world with the fundamental belief that something good is waiting for him there, immediately attaches to the breast of the mother. Thus out of this first experience of attachment follows not only fantasy but also a model of thinking. We link meaning to forms, we link one letter after the other and so forth, we establish meaningful associations in order to navigate external reality. The third concept, playing essentially stands for creative activity, the capacity to be creative, inspiration, a certain formal freedom, but also practices such as experimenting, exploring, mastering, perfecting and such.

In medias res: Whereas this [H&deM: BIRD’S NEST, BEIJING] is obviously architecture, have you ever considered this [GENERIC SOCCER GOAL] to be architecture? Why would it be? There at first seems no artistic involvement, hardly any evolution of form, but a stubborn repetition of a reduced and utilitarian structure, copied over and over again. [repetition compulsion] Compared to an Eiffel Tower, a Coliseum, a Falling Water or a Serpentine Pavilion this bricolage of iron tubes and net is at first hardly anything innovative or spectacular. Well neither is the duck one might say, but this is not the point.

Summary: Architecture contains, a), an element of building and, b), additionally, beyond its intended physical functionality, an immaterial component which can be perceived as ‘symbolic investment’. In short: A = b + Isym

Let’s move to another image, and this is where my personal involvement adds to the picture. I habitually engage a sport that is called basketball. The aim of the game is to pass a given ball through a hoop that is mounted on a height, 10’ (or: ten feet — equals 305 cm) that is beyond reach. The game is usually played by 10 people of the same gender whereby they form two opposing teams. Additionally there are variations such as one-on-one and other dialects. The topological model is that of a tubular hole through which a round object of slightly smaller size must be entered, one might speak of a penetration. All effort is on succeeding achieving this event of one-inside-the-other. In an other variation, soccer is a game where a ball needs to be funnelled into a gate-like construction which is simply referred to as ‘goal’. Here the opening of the frame to be intersected with the ball is on the vertical plane in contrast to basketball, where the hoop is horizontal. This change of position switches the emphasis from the vertical (parabolic or slam) to the horizontal, the parabolic is much more flat, the thrust of the ball thus has the quality of a projectile and is maybe in acknowledgement of this similarity referred to as ‘shot’.

Out if this spatial manoeuvre, ‘to achieve a goal’, which is so vehemently pursued [splitting: idealisation and devaluation] by the contestants the question arises:

Might it be that the ball and the goal (or hoop) have a very special relationship with each other? It appears that one remains rather meaningless without the other which would hint towards a form of co-dependency or might even amount to be labeled symbiosis. I am merely pointing in a certain direction – to elaborate the precise quality in terms of psychodynamics of this relationship needs to be crafted elsewhere as it would here unnecessarily obfuscate (derail) the line of thought.
This is what the ball without the goal is: [‘OUT’]. The shot went off, does not count, is subject to devaluation and is even sanctioned by mild forms of punishment. This is what the goal without the ball is: [‘0:0’]. Still a virgin game. That what is counted is the event of successful penetration.

The intent could be related to a joint effort of coupling: establishing the finite relationship between ball and goal. [fantasised] Here the fantasy of a relationship, the dream that might come true, stands first, clearly the motivation of all field-action, by which we get a first touch with the psychic domain which is going to gain importance as we move along. While coupling is the procedure which unfolds over time, its aim is the insertion, the achievement of a situation of spatial containment: the ball coming to rest in the domain of the goal-gate, usually gently brought to a stand-still by the voluptuous elastic mesh, remaining there for a blink of an eye [or some felt eternity] while the world around is being adjusted to what just happened.

So what exactly has just happened and how does that relate to the question at the beginning of this text? In terms of topographical space, a limited set of individuals have achieved something that they for some time were working on: to establish or construct that relationship between a ball and a gate like structure which they agree to be the most meaningful and desirable and for which they might have previously even prayed for. In this endeavour the gate or goal receives an utmost intensity of libidinal but also aggressive cathexis which is played out by forms of reverie and attack.

What could follow out of this observation is the claim that even though it is the encapsulating infrastructure, the stadium which as a canonic object of architectural discourse is one form of explicit or intentional, conscious architecture, the less decorated and with aesthetic generative concepts invested structure of goal frame (and ball) might be understood as a form of reverse or a posteriori architecture, found objects, found by massive psychic labour which retroactively turns a profane and pragmatic built form into a structure with a non-neglect-able sacral or symbolic quality. This is the typology of the altar, the shrine, the crucifix…

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02c :: ”_p,SY *?cH04cT=Ive 5U85T4NC


My main thesis is going to be this: Architecture is a psychoactive substance. Now what follows thereof? Much has been written about the ways in which architecture or built environment in general structures behaviour and experience of mankind. There are instances where this influence can be considered beneficial and others where it is deemed detrimental. Examples will follow. In this sense it might be not a unique or original thought, yet if one follows through the statement maybe new aspects of the intertwinement between buildings and the psyche can be obtained.

Comfort and the lack of the same is a rather basic quality of human experience. I am cold, the wind blows unhindered around me and makes it hard to concentrate, frustrates, defines my attention. Consequently I feel exposed which can amount to a sense of abandonment or desolation. Do I have the opportunity to cross the street and to enter a building where I can find shelter? If so, it is not only that I have entered a building but also that I have ingested a notion of comfort, thus architecture has entered my system and began to transform my ways of perceiving my existence. It has changed me, inhabited me. I can sit down and continue to write. For a while.

A substance is understood as something that acts onto the organism from within, something which can be consumed. I feel secure, comforted, taken care of, my spirit is lifted. This rather simple and archaic operation might demonstrate the transformative effects of built environment.

Yet, if one continues the exploration, a next question would be that towards the difference between architecture and building and a first answer might be that architecture is a practice of building that is defined by the presence of a planning process of intentionality. It is thoughtful provision. In its course not only the needs of the future inhabitants are envisioned, experimentally and hypothetically articulated, but more so an image of what it means to be human is worked out. And this in the historical tradition of architecture implies psychic, symbolic, aesthetic consideration. More often than not thus architecture is understood by architects as a medium, as a device of communication, an idea, which I believe needs to be scrutinised as the notion of being informed needs to be juxtaposed to the notion of being transformed. The second bearing grave consequences towards the agency and in consequence the responsibility of architecture and planners. This is the dimension of the psychoactive, and we enter the question towards the psychic changes, the imprint of a building onto the soul of the individual or inhabitant once he/she is exposed or immersed in a certain built compound.

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02b :: Idealised Frag,(me…n’t)…s


There came the moment when I woke up to finding myself in the act of searching for relationships between a so-called architecture and a so-called psycho-analysis. It proves hard to transcend the metaphorical level, I was feeling dissatisfaction with the results I so obtained and I came to realise that what I was intending is to find one in the other: (!) I was drawing parallels. Then it began to feel as a liberation when finally questions began to bubble up that I could hold on to. Questions which are not new but maybe require to be answered again and again since a finite answer can never be given, yet the pleasure must be in the attempt. What is it to be in space? To have something like a body? What is it to be limited? To be exposed? To being able to move? To feel and to remember? What is it to be inside or outside, in the same way as what is it to dream or to be awake?

One could argue that while dreaming, we all are some sort of architects. Architects in the sense of the word that we as autonomous yet liable authors engage in creations which follow fantasy, imagination, conceptual thinking, abstraction and symbolisation as much as these nocturnal architectures are commissioned in the wake of fundamental and concrete needs. Houses, landscapes, corridors, infinite spaces, cathedrals, cemeteries, each of us performs infinite design operations, is free to perform a divine play of associations and constructions, sceneries in which scenes, acts and rituals of love and cruelty can unfold. What first appears as freedom might become as something inescapable, as the soap can hardly take place without the kitchen, our imagination is taken up by the need to take place within a certain confine, to be bounded. What exactly drives this spatial dialectic? Where does it stem from? How does the dream memory of confinement and asymptotic freedom permeate waking life?

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02a :: Juanito de la Calle

hello my rainbow friend of time space and jelly
this is urgent
no argent
no nico
no tina
no tear
no peanut
hello my friend of rains and bows
of brains and balls trains, claws and jaws
if u are still there
if u have next you still those who hunger who live
live of all that can be built as all that can be thought
if the pale old dukes and duchesses who always thought
posed and opposed
orders that were a bit older
ten minutes
limits of cold controlled orders are there
all those who think, believe and unite in those fights that always need to be fought
them with stains and marks on their questions
growing inflating in hangars like zeppelins
unmarking with a dot
uneasing the outside of skies
millions of subscribed eyes
tough ones and shies
so if there are there still those who care
those who do and those who dare
on the ranks, on the galleries
on the yanks
then run
run an tell them
tell them about rags, about dark roundabout alleys, the dead ends of every days life
tell them
tell them
tell them that there is
somewhere out there
at the end of an airstrip
at the feet of the airplanes
somewhere between the refinery of oils and the terminal of human soils
in a big old silo
a little Joe
a little Juanito de la Calle
who is in danger
in danger of dying
dying of beauty
dying of wonders
of tectonic and archaic gestations
of towers and tunnels
tell them to come to relieve him
to take some of that beautiful burden
burden of heavy beauty
of loads of surprises
of double progressions and counter narratives
of nothing
of nothing new
still of loud, loud unknowns
clouds of lessons
he caught as a little fisherman in his fine stricken nets
little Juanito
put himself on his own hook
to become
to be
so he was and so he still is
and can be
the bait
the little bait for some other trait
for dark lights and light lengths
never completely the center
for the ends of no ends
never perfect as circle
now here naked
too naked to enter
for now it seems like out there is just white, white crystal winter
winter between a July and an August
better judge with no this, no guts, no gust. no you no me no now no never no more no less no often no fewer no fever no temper no mires no walls no roofs no doors no hands no ands and no ors
this way yours

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021 :: replace all

Ground Control to Major Scum
Ground Control to Major Scum
Take your protein pills and put your helmet on

Ground Control to Major Scum
Commencing countdown, engines on
Check ignition and may God’s love be with you

Ten, Nine, Eight, Seven, Six, Five, Four, Three, Two, One, Lift-off

This is Ground Control to Major Scum
You’ve really made the grade
And the papers want to know whose shirts you wear
Now it’s time to leave the capsule if you dare

“This is Major Scum to Ground Control
I’m stepping through the door
And I’m floating in a most peculiar way
And the stars look very different today

For here
am I floating round my tin can
Far above the world
Planet Earth is glue
And there’s nothing I can do

Though I’m past one hundred thousand files [flies]
I’m feeling very still
And I think my spaceship knows which way to go
Tell my wife I love her very much (she knows!)
Ground Control to Major Scum
Your circuit’s dead, there’s something wrong
Can you hear me, Major Scum?
Can you hear me, Major Scum?
Can you hear me, Major Scum?
Can you hear….

“ am I sitting in a tin can
Far above the Moon
Planet Earth is glue
And there’s nothing I can do.

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020 :: ooH cod3z

    oooOOOOoohhh    oOOohHHH   oooOHHH       oOOooooOOOOooOOohhHHh    oOOooooOOhHH   oooOHHH   oOOoooooOHh              oOOOOooooOOooOOOOOOOOOOooh    oOOoooooOOOOhhhhHHhhHH  oooOHh   oooOHHH    oooooOOoooooooOOhh       oooooOOOOooOOoooooooooOOOh    oHhhH  oooOHh    oOOohHHH  oooOHh    oooooOOoooooooOOhh           oOOooOOOOooOOooOOooooOOooh    ooOOooOOOOooHHhhHHh    oooooOOoooooooOOhh            oOOooooOOOOooOOOOooooOOooh    ooOOooooOOOOooOOOOooooOOohh    ohHHhhh         oOOooOOooOOooOOooOOoooOOoh    ohHHhhH  oooOHh         oOOOOooOOooOOOOohHHhHHH   oooOHHH   oOOoooooOHh        oOOOOooooOOooOOOHhHHHH    oooooOOoooooooOOhh        oOOooOOooooOOOOoooOOooOOoh    ohhhHH   oOOohHH      oOOooOOooHHHHh     oOOohHHHH    oOOooOOoohHH       oOOooOOOOHHhhHH         oOOooOOOOooOOOOohHHhHHh   oOOohHH   oooooOOoohh      oOOooOOooOOoooooHHhh  oOOohh   oOOoooooOHh     oooooOOooOOoooooHHh     oOOOHHHhh   oOOohHH        oOOooooOOOOooooOOoooOOoooh    ohHHHH    oOOohHHH            oOOooOOOOooOOOOooOOOOooOOh    ohhhHHhhHH    oooOOooOOhhh             oOOooOOOOOOooOOooOOOOooOOh    ooooOOooOOOOHHhhHHhhH  oooOHh                 oOOooOOooOOooOOooOOooOOOOh    oOOOOOOooOOoooOOooOOooOOohh    oHHhhHHhhHHH    oooOOooOOhhh    oooooOOoooooooOOhh            oOOooOOooOOooOOooOOOOOOooh    ooOOooOOooOOhhHHhhHH           oOOooOOOOooOOooOOooooOOoOh    oOooOOOOooOOhhHHhhh    oooOOooOOhhh   oooOHHH     oOOooOOOOhhhH   oOOohHH  oooOHh                                               oOOOOooOOooOOOOOOooooOOOOh    oooOOOOOOOOooooooooOOOOooOh    oOooOOooOOooooooOOooOOOOooh    oooooooooooooOOooOOOOOOOOOh    oOOOOOooooooooooooooooooooh    oooOOOOOOooOOooOOooooOOoooh    oooOOOOooOOooOOOOOOooooOOOh    oOooOOOOOOOOooooooooOOHHhhHHhhHHhhHHhhhhhhHHhhHHHHhhhhhhh    oooOOooOOhhh  oOOohh   oOOoooooOHh          oOOooOOooOOooOOooooOOoOOoh    ooOOooOOooOOhhhhHH     oooooOOooOOoooooHHh            oOOooOOooOOOOOOOOooOOooOOh    ohhhHHhhHH   oOOohHH    oOOoooooooOOoooohh  oooOHh   oOOoooooOHh      oOOooOOOOhhHHh  oooOHh   oOOoooooOHh      oOOooOOOOhhHHh   oOOohHH    oOOohHHH    oOOohHHH  oh          oooOOOOOOOOOOooooOOoooooOh    oHHHHHHH       oooOOooooOOOOooOHhhhh  oooOHh       oOOooOOooOOooOOohhHHh    oOOooooOOhHH    oooooOOoooooooOOhh    oOOooOOoohHH     oOOooooooOOoOOoohhh          oOOooOOOOooOOOOohHHHHhHH  oh          oooOOOOOOOOOOooooOOoooooOh    oHHHHHHH  oOOohh       oOOooooOOooOOOOohhHHh    oOOooooOOhHH          oOOooOOooOOOOOOOHhhHHhhh                     oOOooooOOOOooooOOooOOOOOOh    oOOOOooOOooOOooooOOoOOooooh    oOOOOooooOOooOOOOOOOOOOooOh    oOooOOooooOOoOOooooOOOOoooh    ohHHhhHHHHHHHH   oooOHHH   oOOoooooOHh        oOOooooOOOOooooOOoOOooooOh    oHHHhh   oooOHHH            oOOooOOOOOOooOOooOOooooOOh    ooooOOooOOOOHHhhHHhh   oOOoooooOHh        oOOooooOOOOooOOOHhHHhh   oooOHHH     oOOooooOOoooOOoohhH   oOOohHH            oOOooOOooOOOOOOOOooOOooOOh    ohhhHHhhHH   oooOHHH     oOOooOOOOhhhH   oOOohHH        oOOooOOooOOOOooOHhHHhh         oOOooOOOOooOOOOohHHhHHh    oOOohHHH         oOOooOOOOooOOooOHHHhhhH   oooOHHH       oooOOOOooOOooOOohhHHH      oOOOHhhHHH  oOOohh       oOOooOOOOHHhhHH    oOOooooOOhHH    oOOohHHH   oOOohHH   oOOohHH      oOOooOOooHHHHh    oOOohHHH     oOOooOOoooooOOooHHh   oooOHHH  oooOHh    oOOohHHH     oOOooOOoooooOOooHHh     oOOooOOooHHhh  oOOohh     oOOooOOooHHhH  oooOHh    oooooOOoooooooOOhh       oooOOOOOOhhHHHH   oOOohHH     oooooOOooOOoooooHHh        oOOooOOOOHHHHhhH    oooOOooOOhhh   oOOohHH     oooooOOooOOoooooHHh        oOOooOOOOOOooOOohhHHhh     oOOohHHHH    oOOohHHH      oOOooooOOHHHHh     oOOooooOOoooOOoohhH    oOOooOOoohHH   oooOHHH    oooOOOOoohhh      oOOooOOOOhhHHh  oOOohh    oOOohHHH   oooOHHH     oOOooOOooHHhH          oooooOOooOOOOooooOOOOooooh    ooOOooOOOOoohhHHHH   oOOohHH    oOOohHHH  oOOohh   oOOohHH          oOOooOOooOOOOOOOHhhHHhHH            oOOooOOOOooooOOOOOOooOOOOh    ohHHhhHHHH       oOOooOOooHHHHHH    oOOohHHH   oOOohHH     oOOooooOOoooOOoohhH   oooOHHH   oOOohHH            oOOooOOOOOOooOOooOOooooOOh    ooooOOooOOOOHHhhHHhh     oOOooooOOoooooOOhhh   oooOHHH   oOOoooooOHh      oOOOOooOOhhHHh       oOOOOOOOOhhhhHH   oOOohHH   oOOohHH      oooOOOOooOOooooohhHH   oOOohHH    oOOooooOOhHH     oOOOOooOOhhhH  oooOHh   oOOOHhh    oOOooOOoohHH   oOOohHH   oOOohHH      oOOooOOOOhhHHh   oOOohHH      oooOOOOooOOoooooHHHH   oooOHHH   oooooOOoohh    ohhHH    oOOooOOoohHH   oOOohHH    oOOohHHH  oh       oOOooooOOOOooOOohhHHh

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01g :: ___=…,..th3..,20.,M3g4To,n…d”e’Ja,”..=__v_U__e,,,0,00,0o.=~{{


Because we believe in human dignity, Because we believe in human dignity, Because we believe in human dignity, Because we believe in human dignity, Because we believe in human dignity, Because we believe in human dignity, Because we believe in human dignity, The Security Council adopted a resolution that supports an expanded African Union force to help prevent further bloodshed and urges the government of Sudan to stop flights by military aircraft in Darfur . Terrorists and their allies believe the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the American Bill of Rights and every charter of liberty ever written are lies to be burned and destroyed and forgotten. I shall recommend that the Congress of the United States consider promptly the establishment of an appropriate commission to control the production and use of atomic power within the United States . I shall give further consideration and make further recommendations to the Congress as to how atomic power can become a powerful and forceful influence towards the maintenance of world peace. Coalition forces now serving in Iraq are confronting the terrorists and foreign fighters so peaceful nations around the world will never have to face them within our own borders. We may be grateful to Providence that the Germans got the V-1’s and V-2’s late and in limited quantities and even more grateful that they did not get the atomic bomb at all. Behind this air attack will follow sea and land forces in such numbers and power as they have not yet seen and with the fighting skill of which they are already well aware. Those who would lead a new Palestinian state should adopt peaceful means to achieve the rights of their people and create the reformed institutions of a stable democracy. but the achievement of scientific brains in putting together infinitely complex pieces of knowledge held by many men in different fields of science into a workable plan. the machines and methods to do things never done before so that the brainchild of many minds came forth in physical shape and performed as it was supposed to do. my country and other nations have agreed that international financial institutions should increasingly provide new aid in the forms of grants rather than loans. America and many nations have acted to lift the crushing burden of debt that limits the growth of developing economies and holds millions of people in poverty. AIDS is the greatest health crisis of our time and our unprecedented commitment will bring new hope to those who have walked too long in the shadow of death. we knew that the Germans were working feverishly to find a way to add atomic energy to the other engines of war with which they hoped to enslave the world. Both the American Declaration of Independence and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaim the equal value and dignity of every human life. Eventually there is no safe isolation from terror networks or failed states that shelter them or outlaw regimes or weapons of mass destruction. It has never been the habit of the scientists of this country or the policy of this government to withhold from the world scientific knowledge. my nation is increasing our aid to developing nations that expand economic freedom and invest in the education and health of their own people. this organization has helped to create a new democracy in East Timor and the UN has aided other nations in making the transition to self-rule. passing stronger anti-trafficking laws and warning travelers that they will be held to account for supporting this modern form of slavery. But under present circumstances it is not intended to divulge the technical processes of production or all the military applications, The government of Prime Minister Allawi has earned the support of every nation that believes in self-determination and desires peace. We are now prepared to obliterate more rapidly and completely every productive enterprise the Japanese have above ground in any city. With this bomb we have now added a new and revolutionary increase in destruction to supplement the growing power of our armed forces. pending further examination of possible methods of protecting us and the rest of the world from the danger of sudden destruction. And world leaders should withdraw all favor and support from any Palestinian ruler who fails his people and betrays their cause. Although the workers at the sites have been making materials to be used in producing the greatest destructive force in history, The UN and its member nations must respond to Prime Minister Allawi’s request and do more to help build an Iraq that is secure, and my nation is grateful to the soldiers of many nations who have helped to deliver the Iraqi people from an outlaw dictator. America has undertaken a $15 billion effort to provide prevention and treatment and humane care in nations afflicted by AIDS, the world must have more effective means to stabilize regions in turmoil and to halt religious violence and ethnic cleansing. Employment during peak construction numbered 125000 and over 65000 individuals are even now engaged in operating the plants. which achieved a unique success in managing so diverse a problem in the advancement of knowledge in an amazingly short time. They know that a free Iraq in the heart of the Middle East will be a decisive blow against their ambitions for that region. I believe we will rise to this moment because I know the character of so many nations and leaders represented here today, For these reasons Prime Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt agreed that it was wise to carry on the project here. terrorists have attacked police stations and banks and commuter trains and synagogues and a school filled with children. while at that time Britain was exposed to constant air attack and was still threatened with the possibility of invasion. Money from the fund would also help set up voter precincts in polling places and support the work of election monitors. The fund would help countries lay the foundations of democracy by instituting the rule of law and independent courts, but these difficulties will not shake our conviction that the future of Afghanistan and Iraq is a future of liberty. The United States had available the large number of scientists of distinction in the many needed areas of knowledge. We must help the reformers of the Middle East as they work for freedom and strive to build a community of peaceful, The people of Madrid and Jerusalem and Istanbul and Baghdad have done nothing to deserve sudden and random murder. They’re fighting to defend their nation from Taliban holdouts and helping to strike against the terrorist killers. The dictator agreed in 1991 as a condition of a cease-fire to fully comply with all Security Council resolutions, It was to spare the Japanese people from utter destruction that the ultimatum of July 26 was issued at Potsdam . So a terrorist group associated with Al Qaida is now one of the main groups killing the innocent in Iraq today, We know that free peoples embrace progress and life instead of becoming the recruits for murderous ideologies. we will stand with the people of Afghanistan and Iraq until their hopes of freedom and security are fulfilled. the prime minister of Iraq and his delegation represent a country that has rejoined the community of nations. end the daily humiliation of the Palestinian people and avoid any actions that prejudice final negotiations. The force from which the sun draws its power has been loosed against those who brought war to the Far East . the UN will consider a resolution sponsored by Costa Rica calling for a comprehensive ban on human cloning. With American and British scientists working together we entered the race of discovery against the Germans. The fact that we can release atomic energy ushers in a new era in man’s understanding of nature’s forces. I call on the government of Sudan to honor the cease-fire it signed and to stop the killing in Darfur . it was the accepted belief of scientists that it was theoretically possible to release atomic energy. the contributing countries have funded projects in more than 90 countries and pledged a total of $5. These selfless people are doing heroic work and are carrying on the great legacy of Sergio de Mello. They believe that suicide and torture and murder are fully justified to serve any goal they declare. America and many nations have joined together to confront the evil of trafficking in human beings. Rwanda and Nigeria have deployed forces in Sudan to help improve security so aid can be delivered. They deserve true leaders capable of creating and governing a free and peaceful Palestinian state. More than 35 nations have contributed money and expertise to help rebuild Iraq ‘s infrastructure. The countries of the G-8 will help this peacekeeping force with deployment and logistical needs. These acts violate the standards of justice in all cultures and the principles of all religions. We can expect terrorist attacks to escalate as Afghanistan and Iraq approach national elections. For decades the circle of liberty and security and development has been expanding in our world. They see great quantities of material going in and they see nothing coming out of these plants, And both of our founding documents affirm that this bright line between justice and injustice, I have outlined a broad agenda to advance human dignity and enhance the security of all of us. They believe the dictators should control every mind and tongue in the Middle East and beyond. And that desire cannot be contained forever by prison walls or martial laws or secret police; the world is witnessing terrible suffering and horrible crimes in the Darfur region of Sudan , We now have two great plants and many lesser works devoted to the production of atomic power. a bold approach that links new aid from developed nations to real reform in developing ones. and the United States is grateful to every nation that is helping to seize terrorist assets, poor countries with the heaviest debt burdens have received more than $30 billion of relief. officials from the United Nations are helping Iraqis build the infrastructure of democracy. Our broader mission as UN members is to apply these ideals to the great issues of our time. The battle of the laboratories held fateful risks for us as well as the battles of the air, A democratic Iraq has ruthless enemies because terrorists know the stakes in that country. Our wider goal is to promote hope and progress as the alternatives to hatred and violence. scientific knowledge useful in war was pooled between the United States and Great Britain , Wise governments also stand for these principles for very practical and realistic reasons. Democratic institutions have taken root in modern societies and in traditional societies. This commitment to democratic reform is essential to resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict. Let history also record that our generation of leaders followed through on these ideals, members of the United Nations did not grow weary in our duties or waver in meeting them. Because I believe the advance of liberty is the path to both a safer and better world, the Russian children did nothing to deserve such awful suffering and fright and death. To any who still would question whether Muslim societies can be democratic societies, We’ve witnessed the rise of democratic governments in predominantly Hindu and Muslim, Women and children should never be exploited for pleasure or greed anywhere on Earth. and my nation is grateful to all that participated in the liberation of Afghanistan . and we have now won the battle of the laboratories as we have won the other battles. conducting a campaign of bombings against civilians and the beheadings of bound men. And today I assure every friend of Afghanistan and Iraq and every enemy of liberty, It had the tremendous industrial and financial resources necessary for the project, These regimes destabilized one of the world’s most vital and most volatile regions. but at present it cannot be produced on a basis to compete with them commercially. Our security is not merely found in spheres of influence or some balance of power, outlaw regimes in Baghdad and Kabul threatened the peace and sponsored terrorists. We’re determined to prevent proliferation and to enforce the demands of the world, and they could be devoted to it without undue impairment of other vital war work. to raise the status of women or to channel human energy to the pursuits of peace. we should take seriously the protection life from exploitation under any pretext. If they do not now accept our terms they may expect a rain of ruin from the air, a region where millions have been denied basic human rights and simple justice. Both science and industry worked under the direction of the United States Army, His statement will give facts concerning the sites at Oak Ridge near Knoxville , The Afghan people are showing extraordinary courage under difficult conditions. The United States and Italy have proposed a global peace operations initiative. We congratulate the members of the council on this timely and necessary action. We have spent $2 billion on the greatest scientific gamble in history–and won. What has been done is the greatest achievement of organized science in history. Atomic energy may in the future supplement the power that now comes from coal, It is doubtful if such another combination could be got together in the world. No human life should ever be produced or destroyed for the benefit of another. The democratic hopes we see growing in the Middle East are growing everywhere. they have not themselves been in danger beyond that of many other occupations, And every nation that seeks peace has an obligation to help build that world. The American people respect the idealism that gave life to this organization. Nor is there only one form of representative government because democracies, She recently visited the cemetery and saw what she called the little graves. Peace will not be achieved by Palestinian rulers who intimidate opposition, to promote social progress and better standards of life and larger freedom. Today the Iraqi and Afghan people are on the path to democracy and freedom. and many priceless helps to our victories have come from that arrangement. Goodwill and hard effort can achieve the promise of the road map to peace. I’ve addressed this General Assembly in a time of tragedy for our country, seeking the quiet life by ignoring the struggles and oppression of others. The advance of freedom always carries a cost paid by the bravest among us. and we must continue show our commitment to democracies in those nations. today I propose establishing a democracy fund within the United Nations. Sixteen hours ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima , Every nation that wants peace will share the benefits of a freer world. It had more than 2000 times the blast power of the British “Grand Slam, The United States played a key role in efforts to broker a cease- fire, America and many nations have established a global fund to fight AIDS, And hardly less marvelous has been the capacity of industry to design, Our great purpose is to build a better world beyond the war on terror. placing a special focus on 15 countries where the need is most urgent. the security of our world is found in the advancing rights of mankind. And so a coalition of nations enforced the just demands of the world. we all have a stake in the success of the world’s newest democracies. And as the Iraqi interim government moves toward national elections, Before that comes there must be a long period of intensive research. even excused oppression in the Middle East in the name of stability. the Security Council promised serious consequences for his defiance. Under that general policy the research on the atomic bomb was begun. and we’re providing humanitarian assistance to the Sudanese people. for the physical size of the explosive charge is exceedingly small. In the United States the laboratory work and the production plants, ” which is the largest bomb ever yet used in the history of warfare. And this progress is good for the long-term security of all of us. everything about the work with atomic energy would be made public. in the death of the innocent and in the pain of grieving families. No other system of government has done more to protect minorities, We must create permanent capabilities to respond to future crises. We’re determined to destroy terror networks wherever they operate, are now registered to vote in next month’s presidential election. Finding the full promise of representative government takes time, Now we have the historic chance to widen the circle even further, self-government to Latin America and Asia and new hope to Africa . They brutalized their peoples in defiance of all civilized norms. democracy simply means good government rooted in responsibility, I’m confident that this young century will be liberty’s century. In the words of the Burmese democracy advocate Aung San Suu Kyi, Our coalition is standing beside a growing Iraqi security force. The United Nations and my country share the deepest commitments. who stand for peace and human rights in every part of the world. will immediately make public a statement giving further details. America and many nations have changed the way we fight poverty, People everywhere are capable of freedom and worthy of freedom. so they can conduct operations on that continent and elsewhere. They’ve adopted a constitution that protects the rights of all, The governments that are rising will pose no threat to others. These two nations will be a model for the broader Middle East , We do not accept the notion that democracy is a Western value. who has kept in personal touch with all phases of the project, and urge all governments to affirm a basic ethical principle: as America has found in two centuries of debate and struggle. Now we gather at a time of tremendous opportunity for the UN, take on the unique character of the peoples that create them. is the same in every age and every culture and every nation. Thank you for the honor of addressing this General Assembly. The NATO alliance is providing vital training to that force. America mourns the losses to our nation and to many others. we saw once again how the terrorists measure their success: while free governments fight the terrorists in their midst. But the greatest marvel is not the size of the enterprise, tolerate corruption and maintain ties to terrorist groups. while free nations strive to resolve differences in peace. for the sake of peace there must be serious consequences. peaceful nations must stand for the advance of democracy. the enemies of human rights are responding with violence. The liberty that many have won at a cost must be secured. History will honor the high ideals of this organization. In their present form these bombs are now in production, The Japanese began the war from the air at Pearl Harbor . to fight radicalism and terror with justice and dignity, We’re determined to end the state sponsorship of terror, while honoring their nation’s most cherished traditions. to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, We’re supporting organizations that rescue the victims, and I have faith in the transforming power of freedom. It is a harnessing of the basic power of the universe. We know that dictators are quick to choose aggression, we shall completely destroy Japan ‘s power to make war. And under Security Council Resolutions 1511 and 1546, Arab states should end incitement in their own media, The long-suffering Palestinian people deserve better. then ignored more than a decade of those resolutions. All civilized nations are in this struggle together, It was done under high pressure and without failure. The desire for freedom resides in every human heart. the like of which has never been seen on this earth. The proper response to difficulty is not to retreat; the United States will make an initial contribution. This is a great calling for this great organization. track down their operatives and disrupt their plans. When it comes to the desire for liberty and justice, for the utmost care has been taken of their safety. on which a substantial start had already been made, We know that oppressive governments support terror, But no one knew any practical method of doing it. cut off public and private funding for terrorism, Freedom is finding a way in Iraq and Afghanistan , To show our commitment to the new democracy fund, and even more powerful forms are in development. crimes my government has concluded are genocide. Many have worked there for two and a half years. one of the main terrorist goals is to undermine, Since the last meeting of this General Assembly, terrorism and all violence against the innocent. That bomb had more power than 20000 tons of TNT. these ideals call us to great work in the world. I urge all other nations to contribute as well. Their leaders promptly rejected that ultimatum. And the commitments we make must have meaning. Eventually there is no safety in looking away, to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, And through the Millennium Challenge Account, I understand that there is evil in the world, our world needs a new definition of security. the people of Iraq have regained sovereignty. And welcome to the United States of America . G-8 countries will train 75000 peacekeepers, These rights are advancing across the world. and establish normal relations with Israel . And to prevent the build-up of future debt, And we respect the men and women of the UN, Let history show that in a decisive decade, That dignity is honored by the rule of law, but what have these little creatures done? the Afghan people are giving their answer. This progress has brought unity to Europe , Israel should impose a settlement freeze, That dignity is dishonored by oppression, disrupt and influence election outcomes. Together we can accomplish so much more. and in times of decision for all of us. Few know what they have been producing. would be out of reach of enemy bombing, equal justice and religious tolerance. Each of us alone can only do so much. More than 10 million Afghan citizens, The Charter states them with clarity: Yet this much we know with certainty: the world is providing that support. political parties and trade unions. there is no clash of civilizations. we created the Monterrey Consensus, along with her son and her nephew. and an installation near Santa Fe , Since these efforts began in 1996, they’re fighting terrorist groups. We must take a different approach. and all must fight the murderers. As members of the United Nations, As we’ve seen in other countries, limits on the power of the state, They’re reviving they’re economy. When we say serious consequences, an important Japanese Army base. curb corruption and provide aid. dismantle unauthorized outposts, Instead of harboring terrorists, transparency and accountability. over time and across the Earth, protection of private property, the protection of human rights, They have been repaid manyfold. And they act on their beliefs. Defending our ideals is vital, Jewish and Christian cultures. Members of the United Nations, to secure the rights of labor, and for all peaceful nations. over 4 million of them women, The oppression became common, We shall destroy their docks, but stability never arrived. During the past three years, The work ahead is demanding, and at Richland near Pasco , Her nephew did not survive. Here at the United Nations, I support that resolution, 6 billion to these efforts. and their communications. founded on human freedom. the advance of democracy: the spread of prosperity, tuberculosis and malaria. Welcome to New York City . you know this to be true. and of labor to operate, between right and wrong, distinguished delegates, freedom will find a way. Let there be no mistake; to achieve a true peace, And the end is not yet. In the last year alone, In this young century, initially from Africa , And across the world, but it is not enough. It is an atomic bomb. ladies and gentlemen: Mr Secretary General, The defeat of terror, The secretary of war, This month in Beslan, before Pearl Harbor , democratic nations. Svetlana Deibesov ( Today in this hall, and falling water, Beginning in 1940, even in adversity. May God bless you. respect for women, federal and free. including my own, it is to prevail. was held hostage, But they failed. In recent years, In this session, their factories, To the contrary, In three years, by definition, a free press, At this hour, For too long, many nations, Mr President, nor its cost, Not long ago, These causes, Before 1939, free speech, its secrecy, corruption, democratic, New Mexico . Washington , Tennessee , therefore, tolerated, Buddhist, Normally, She said, and sea, bigotry, By 1942, Finally, however, In 2002, tyranny, land, oil, ph)



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